Sunday, October 31, 2010
20 juta man setahun...
mau gimana lagi.. saya juga analis sistem meskipun PNS.
ga percaya... nih... gambarnya...
padahal gaji plus tunjangan ku cuma 50 jutaan lebih dikit... aduh duh nasib PNS...
Tuesday, October 5, 2010
Origins of Systematic Serials Control
Remembering Carolyn Ulrich
"The public demand will soon force upon our attention the fact that libraries must provide a method adequate to the tremendous task of making immediately accessible the vast amount of material contained in current periodicals, and also that libraries must maintain a staff adequate to assist the research worker. The future of the large current periodical room lies in blending the aspect of a reference library and a general circulating library." (CUR, October, 1926)
The January 1987 issue of Access , a quarterly update from R.R. Bowker Company, contains a brief article entitled "Ulrich's: A Prime Source in Any Format." This short piece tells us that 1987 marked the silver anniversary of the founding of Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory and that we have good reason to celebrate. The reason is that Ulrich's, and its sister publications, Irregular Serials and Annuals and Bowker's Serials Database Update , are now available on CD-ROM and known as Ulrich's PLUS . The article states that "this electronic disc format offers high speed access, multiple search points and ease of use." The article also informs us that data for Ulrich's are continuously revised and updated by no less than thirteen editors who have multilingual skills and whose combined efforts provide indepth profiles of seventy thousand serials and thirty-five thousand irregulars published worldwide, that there are updates for more than sixty-five thousand entries, and that there is a "descriptive analysis of the content and point of view of each publication." And, finally, that all periodicals are subject indexed. 1
This statistical information is impressive and one marvels at what modern technology combined with creative know-how has done with an idea that began in the mind of one librarian whose first monographic publication was known as Periodicals Directory: A Classified Guide to a Selected List of Current Periodicals Foreign and Domestic . 2 A volume of this directory was first published in 1932, and since then it has flourished and grown to monumental proportions. The year 1987 marked the fifty-fifth anniversary of its first publication.
It is perhaps not generally known that many of the basic reference books found in the collections of all libraries were created by librarians, librarians who recognized the need for access to a certain kind of information but found no readily available means of retrieving the information. Thus a file or listing of information was created. Such a file was used primarily by the members of the library staff to locate quickly information that in many cases was needed by a staff member or needed to answer an inquiry made by a patron. Because of such efforts, we have the many indexes, bibliographies, guides, handbooks, and directories that have become indispensable in our work and have become essential in maintaining efficient library operations and providing effective reference service. Unfortunately, many people who use the library take these reference works for granted, neither realizing nor understanding the amount of research required to compile a reference book of this type.
ULRICH'S EDUCATION AND EARLY CAREER
As all librarians know, the author of Periodicals Directory: A Classified Guide to a Selected List of Current Periodicals Foreign and Domestic was the former chief of the periodicals division of the New York Public Library (NYPL), Carolyn Ulrich. Writing in the preface to the first edition of the Directory, Ulrich states that "The need for an up-to-date classified list of foreign and domestic periodicals has long been felt." 3 Simply stated, it is because Carolyn Ulrich responded to that need that we now have Ulrich's Plus .
Who was Carolyn Ulrich? She was a librarian, to be sure. Her record of employment can easily be traced through such standard biographical works as Who's Who in Library Service and Who's Who in America , and her writings are to be found in the issues of Library Literature published between 1922 and 1947. 4 However, virtually nothing seems to have been written about the woman whose name for over half a century has been associated with what has become an essential and major reference source. This fact prompted my intense interest in, and my eventual investigation and examination of, materials relating to the life and contributions of the woman who pioneered efforts in the management and bibliographic control of serial literature.
Carolyn Farquhar Ulrich was born in Oakland , California , on 16 August 1880, the daughter of Lina Linck (Hartman) and Rudolph Ulrich. Little is known of her childhood. It is believed, however, that she had a brother. At some point following her birth, the family moved to New York . Ulrich entered Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn , New York , in 1897. She received her diploma in 1901. While in high school, she studied both French and German, in addition to the regular curriculum. 5 Later she was also to study Latin. Ulrich apparently had an interest in the arts, for following graduation from high school, she attended Pratt Institute Art School for one year. Her interest in library work became evident between the years 1901 and 1906, and in 1906 she began working as an assistant in the Brooklyn Public Library. At this point she had had no formal library training. Undoubtedly feeling the need for such training, she attended the Albany Summer Library School during the summer of 1907. Fortified with this experience, she remained an assistant at the Brooklyn library until 1912. In 1913 she became "first assistant," a position she held until 1917. Ulrich apparently continued to be concerned about improving and continuing her education, for during the years 1912 and 1914, she registered for, and completed, extension courses in literature and in Chinese and Japanese art at Columbia University and New York University .
In April 1917, at the age of thirty-seven, 6 Ulrich applied for admission to the certificate program in library science at Pratt Institute, an established program of library education, which had been founded in 1890. At the time she applied she was living at 34 Jefferson Avenue in Brooklyn . 7 When queried about previous library experience on the application for admission, she of course stated the Brooklyn Public Library, and specified "9 years--41/2 as first assistant (Eligible for Branch Librarian)." 8 Another question inquired about the character and extent of the applicant's reading habits. To this question her response was "Varied and extensive--Interested in Art, Philosophy and representative writings in all Literature." 9 Her year at Pratt Institute must have been an exciting one, and her previous practical library work augured well for her life as a student. A student information/evaluation form describes her dress as "absolutely correct in taste and style. Sport clothes types." Ulrich was also described as having a "good social manner;" a "cultivated voice;" "good looking presence," and as being in "excellent health." 10 Other comments described Ulrich and her work as "gracious and very efficient, lots of enthusiasm and great energy, unfailing tact, unusual literary taste, and has good sense." 11 Apparently cataloging was not a strong area; in this area Ulrich was described as "a little careless but turns work off rapidly." 12 The person completing the form could not recommend her for either cataloging or for work with children but could recommend her for "executive work or organizing." 13
Ulrich completed the requirements for the certificate program in 1918 and joined the "Graduates' Association" of the school. 14 In June she accepted a position with the Bridgeport ( Connecticut ) Public Library as chief of the circulation department and branches (extension work) of the library, at a salary of one thousand dollars. 15 The following year, she was listed in the Bridgeport City Directory as an employee of the public library and as domiciled at 369 Golden Hill Street , Bridgeport . 16
The Municipal Register for Bridgeport , Connecticut , for 1919 states that Henry N. Sanborn was the city librarian, and that Ulrich was chief of the circulation and branch department in the library system. 17 It is also of interest to note that in the Register a Marion Cutter is listed as "Chief of the Children's Department, High School Reference and School Departments," 18 also in the Bridgeport Public Library. Cutter and Ulrich seem to have been destined to become good friends as this seems to have been the beginning of an enduring association that would extend over the next five decades.
Henry Sanborn must have been extremely pleased to have the executive insights and organizational abilities of Ulrich at work on the library staff. The "Thirty-Eighth Annual Report of the Bridgeport Public Library and Reading Room" contains a section that reflects a flurry of activity in the library's circulation department, all of which was undoubtedly the result of Ulrich's forceful influence. The passage reads as follows: